According to the coordination made by the Public Relations of the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Dr. Maryam Ghayeb Zamharir, a faculty member of the Plant Diseases Research Department, gave an interview to the Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA) on Sunday, April 18, entitled: "yellows and decline disease of Grapes were identified in 6 provinces of the country" which can be seen in the following link:
Tehran - IRNA - A faculty member of the Plant Diseases Research Department of the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection said: "We have identified yellows and decline disease of grape and are managing this disease in some provinces."
Grape is one of the most valuable and important horticultural products in Iran which is attacked by various plant pathogens. The complication of yellows and phytoplasmic decline disease of grape is one of the causes of destruction of vineyards in some provinces in recent years in the country. According to her, so far, reports have been submitted from different provinces, including Lorestan, Markazi, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Isfahan, Fars and Khorasan, regarding this disease.
About the importance of correct identification of yellows and decline disease and the differences between its symptoms and other diseases in vineyards for the correct and timely management of this disease she stated that: In general, two types of rapid or instantaneous decline (known as Esca) and slow or gradual decline disease due to phytoplasmic factors and Psalmocharias alhageos are observed in vineyards. “Esca disease is one of the most dangerous and deadly fungal diseases of the vine tree, which causes severe economic losses due to overwork and reduced yields in vineyards," said Ghayeb Zamharir. According to her, Esca is a disease associated with many fungal species. She cautioned farmers not to burn the remains of infected vine trees.
For the management of the yellows and phytoplasmic decline disease of grapes she recommended: Use healthy trees for cuttings and cut down and uproot trees with signs of decline or withering and remove them from vineyards in autumn and winter, this action is very effective in controlling this complication.
She said: "Avoid burning the debris or shredding the infected debris inside the vineyard, and the contaminated debris should be removed and destroyed outside the orchards. As much as possible, the debris of the previous trunk and roots should be removed from the soil and replaced and Re-planted with healthy seedlings having health certificates prepared in the reputable nurseries.
Ghayeb Zamharir stated that the control of sucking pests in vineyards is recommended as a vector of the disease, adding: "Therefore, the simultaneous management of these pests with cluster eating worms using diazinon at the rate of 1.5 l/ 1000 based on the Prognosis announcement is essential.
She stated: elimination of annual and perennial weeds, regular irrigation of gardens and prevention of drought stress are also different ways to control this complication.
According to her, green pruning, removal of herbaceous branches without spikes and cuttings in the early stages of growth is of particular importance, pruning should be done to the extent that the remaining branches have the power to secure water and tolerate water shortages.
"The use of resistance inducers is also recommended for the management of grape phytoplasmic diseases in the world, so the use of 4 l/ 1000 fosetyl aluminum as soon as you see the symptoms of yellows scattered in the spring has a good effect on improving the symptoms in the garden," she said.